38. Why do accidents take place in mines?
Accident causation is a complex process. But generally these are caused due to Unsafe Acts and Unsafe conditions. A combination of factors at the same moment may lead to accident causing injury to the persons.
39. What is the classification of Mine Accidents/Injuries?
Fatal: Those accidents which results in death of one or more person
Serious: Those accidents which results in serious bodily injury to one or more person. Serious bodily injury is defined as an injury which involves the permanent loss of any part of the body or permanent loss of or injury to the sight or hearing or any permanent in capacity or fractures of any bone or joints.
Reportable: Which results in reportable injury to one or more person. Reportable injury is defined as any injury other than a serious bodily injury which involves the enforced absence of the injured person from work for a period of 72 hours or more.
Minor: Which results in minor injury to one or more person. Minor injury is defined as any injury other than a serious bodily injury which involves the enforced absence of the injured person from work for a period exceeding 24 hours but less than 72 hours.
40. What quantity measures accident proneness of mines?
Frequency rate and severity index
41. What are the basic causes of accidents as per DGMS?
The DGMS classification of accident causes is as follows:
1. Ground movement
2. Transportation Machinery (winding in shaft)
3. Transportation Machinery (Other than winding in shaft)
4. Machinery other than Transportation Machinery
7. Dust, gas and other Combustible Materials
8. Fall (other than fall of ground)
9. Other causes
42. What is included in an accident report?
The report should be detailed under the following heads:
Events prior to accident: Which operations were being carried out before accident occurrence
Occurrence of the accident: What were the basic reasons for the accident
Rescue and recovery: What was being done to save the personnel and the equipments
Inspection and enquiry
Analysis of evidence
Causes of the accident
Responsibility: Who was primarily responsible for the accident
Recommendations: What changes are required to stop such accidents in future and provide hazard free working conditions.
43. What is Plant Load factor?
A plant load factor is a measure of average capacity utilization. If the PLF is affected by non-availability of fuel, maintenance shut-down, unplanned break down and no offtake (as consumption pattern fluctuates lower in nights), the generation has to be adjusted. A power (electricity) storage is not feasible. A generation of power is controlled to match the offtake. For any duration, a power plant generates below its full capacity. To that extent it is a capacity loss.
In the electricity industry, load factor is a measure of the output of a power plant compared to the maximum output it could produce.
44. What is the difference between the plant load factor (PLF) and the capacity factor of a power plant?
Plant Load Factory (PLF) is the ratio between the actual energy generated by the plant to the MAXIMUM possible energy that can be generated with the plant working at its rated power and for a duration of an entire year.
Capacity factor is how much electricity a power plant actually produces compared to how much it would produce if it operated at full nameplate capacity 100% of the time. No power plant operates at 100% capacity factor.
Capacity Utilisation Factor(CUF) =Energy measured (kWh) / (365*24*installed capacity of the plant) for solar power plants.
Both the terms are different.The performance of power plants (generation, PLF etc.) is dependent on a number factors like installed capacity, age of the units, past performance, planned outages, availability of water/fuel (both quantity and quality), etc
45. Installed capacity by source in India as of 31 December 2016
- Coal: 188,967.88 MW (61.0%)
- Large Hydro: 43,139.43 MW (13.9%)
- Small Hydro: 4,323.37 MW (1.4%)
- Wind Power: 28,082.95 MW (9.1%)
- Biomass: 4,997.41 MW (1.6%)
- Solar Power: 8,513.23 MW (2.7%)
- Gas: 25,282.13 MW (8.2%)
- Nuclear: 5,780 MW (1.9%)
- Diesel: 918.89 MW (0.3%)
46. Total Installed Capacity:(As on 31.12.2016)
% of Total
% of Total
Renewable Energy Sources(RES) include SHP, BG, BP, U&I and Wind Energy SHP= Small Hydro Project ,BG= Biomass Gasifier ,BP= Biomass Power, U & I=Urban & Industrial Waste Power, RES=Renewable Energy Sources
47. Name few schemes undertaken by Government to improve power sector In India.
a. Ujjawal Discom Assurance Yojana(UDAY):
· Financial turnaround and revival package for electricity distribution companies of India (DISCOMs) initiated by the Government of India
· with the intent to find a permanent solution to the financial problems of DISCOMS
· To improve operational efficiencies of discoms, reduction of cost of power, reduction in interest cost of discoms and enforcing financial discipline on discoms
b. Deen Dayal Upadhyay Gram Jyoti Yojana:
- Separation of agriculture and non-agriculture feeders
- Strengthening of sub-transmission and distribution networks in the rural areas;
- Metering of distribution transformers / feeders / consumers in the rural area.
- Rural Electrification
c. Integrated Power Development Scheme (IPDS):
- Strengthening of sub-transmission and distribution networks in the urban areas;
- Metering of distribution transformers / feeders / consumers in the urban area.
- IT enablement of distribution sector and strengthening of distribution network
d. National Smart Grid Mission: A smart grid is an electrical grid with automation, communication and IT systems that can monitor power flows from points of generation to points of consumption (sometimes even down to the appliances level) and control the power flow or curtail the load to match generation on real-time basis.
· It involves two-way communication among the generating units, the control centres of distribution utilities and the consumers.
· The smart grid enables increased, predictability and control of generation and demand through consumer involvement, thus bringing flexibility in both generation and consumption, enabling the utility to better integrate intermittent renewable generation and reducing costs of peak power. A smart grid is cost-effective, responsive, and engineered for reliability of operations.
· Smart grid has several positive features that give direct benefit to consumers. Real time monitoring, automated outage management and faster restoration facilitated by Smart Grids enables consumers to enjoy improved reliability and better quality of power.
48. What is fatigue?
Fatigue, also referred to as tiredness, exhaustion, lethargy, and listlessness, describes a physical and/or mental state of being tired and weak. Although physical and mental fatigue are different, the two often exist together - if a person is physically exhausted for long enough, they will also be mentally tired.
49. What are the signs of fatigue?
Signs and symptoms of fatigue include:
- sleepiness, including falling asleep against your will ("micro" sleeps),
- loss of appetite,
- digestive problems, and
- increased susceptibility to illness.
50. What are the impacts of fatigue?
Because fatigue cannot be "measured", it is difficult to separate the effects of long working hours or lack of sleep to any changes in accident or injury rates.
However, studies report the effects of fatigue as:
- reduced decision making ability,
- reduced ability to do complex planning,
- reduced communication skills,
- reduced productivity / performance,
- reduced attention and vigilance,
- reduced ability to handle stress on the job,
- reduced reaction time - both in speed and thought,
- loss of memory or the ability to recall details,
- failure to respond to changes in surroundings or information provided,
- unable to stay awake (e.g., falling asleep while operating machinery or driving a vehicle),
- increased tendency for risk-taking,
- increased forgetfulness,
- increased errors in judgement,
- increased sick time, absenteeism, rate of turnover,
- increased medical costs, and
- increased accident rates.
51. What are some causes of fatigue?
There are many, many causes of fatigue.
Work-related factors may include long work hours, long hours of physical or mental activity, insufficient break time between shifts, inadequate rest, excessive stress or a combination of these factors.
Sometimes, a sleep disorder may cause fatigue.
52. How can a workplace help keep workers "alert"?
Fatigue is increased by:
- dim lighting,
- limited visual acuity (i.e., due to weather),
- high temperatures,
- high noise,
- high comfort,
- tasks which must be sustained for long periods of time, and
- work tasks which are long, repetitive, paced, difficult, boring and monotonous.
Workplaces can help by providing environments which have good lighting, comfortable temperatures, and reasonable noise levels. Work tasks should provide a variety of interest and tasks should change throughout the shift.
If extended hours/overtime are common, remember to consider the time required to commute home, meal preparation, eating, socializing with family, etc. Workplaces may wish to consider providing:
- on-site accommodations,
- prepared meals for workers, and
- facilities where employees can take a nap before they drive home.
53. What is the difference between stress and fatigue?
When your body reacts to a physical, mental or emotional stimulus, it can cause stress that interferes with your health or normal functioning. Stress occurs when situations put more pressure on you than you think you can handle. One symptom of long-term stress is fatigue, defined as physical or mental exhaustion. Fatigue causes a dulling of your senses, thought processes and reflexes
54. What is the difference between EIA, EIS and EMP?
Environmental assessment (EIA) is the assessment of the environmental consequences (positive and negative) of a plan, policy, program, or concrete projects prior to the decision to move forward with the proposed action.
An environmental impact statement (EIS) is a document required for certain actions "significantly affecting the quality of the human environment". An EIS is a tool for decision making. It describes the positive and negative environmental effects of a proposed action, and it usually also lists one or more alternative actions that may be chosen instead of the action described in the EIS.
Environmental Management Plan(EMP): Preparation of environmental management plan is required for formulation, implementation and monitoring of environmental protection measures during and after commissioning of projects. The plans should indicate the details as to how various measures have been or are proposed to be taken including cost components as may be required.
55. Definition of Degree I, II and III gassy mines in India
- Gassy seam of the first degree means a coal seam or part thereof lying within the precincts of a mine not being an open cast working whether or not inflammable gas is actually detected in the general body of the air at any place in its workings below ground, or when the percentage of the inflammable gas if and when detected, in such general body of air does not exceed 0.1 and the rate of emission of such gas does not exceed one cubic metre per tonne of coal produced;
- Gassy seams of the second degree means coal seams or part thereof lying within the precincts of a mine not being an open cast working in which the percentage of inflammable gas in the general body of air at any place in the workings of the seam is more than 0.1 or the rate of emission of inflammable gas per tonne of coal produced exceeds one cubic metre but does not exceed ten cubic metres;
- Gassy seams of the third degree means of coal seam or part thereof lying within the precincts of a mine not being an open cast workings in which the rate of emission of inflammable gas per tonne of coal produced exceeds ten cubic metres;
56. Enumerate safety committees at various level
At National Level or Parliamentary Level:
· Standing committee on safety in coal mines
· National Safety Conference
· Various parliamentary committees on safety
At CIL Headquarters Level(Similar committees for other coal companies also)
· CIL Safety Board
· National Dust Prevention Committee
At Subsidiary Headquarters Level:
· Bipartite / Tripartite safety committee: Inspection and advising on corrective measures by Safety Board constituted at subsidiary level
At Area Level:
· Bipartite / Tripartite safety committee: Inspection and advising on corrective measures by Safety Board constituted at area level
At Mine Level:
· Workman inspectors as per Mine Rule, 1955
· Pit safety committee constituted as per Mine Rule, 1955
· Statutory supervisory personnel
57. What is the use of equipment Tell-Tale?
Tell tale is strata – extensometer (device used for strata monitoring). It provides pre-emptive warning of roof-falling. It provides an immediate visible warning, distinguishing between movement above and below rock-bolted height. It is a warning device used for goafing and depillaring operations.
With conventional free standing support such as props, there is obvious indication when they are carrying excessive load, the greater the load the greater the deformation. Roof bolts however give no visual indication of load increase and therefore no indication of how close either the individual bolts or the system is to ultimate failure.
58. What are the qualifications required for manager?
- Minimum age of 23 years
- Paid by or directly answerable to owner or Agent
- Requirement of minimum average output for first class or second class degree holder
- In excess of 2,500 [tonnes] per month- A First Class Manager’s Certificate
- In excess of 600 [tonnes] but not exceeding 2,500 [tonnes] per month- A First or Second Class Manager’s Certificate
- In any other case- A First or Second Class Manager’s Certificate or a Managers permit.
- However CIM may appoint any person holding Overman’s certificate as Manager for a specified period.
59. What is Manager’s permit?
The Chief Inspector may, after holding such examination as he may deem necessary and subject to such conditions as he may specify therein grant to any person holding an Overman’s Certificate, a permit (in these regulations referred to as Manager’s Permit) authorised such person to act as the manager of any specified mine, the average output of which does not exceed 600 tons.
A Manager’s Permit shall be valid only for such period, not exceeding 12 months as may be specified therein. The Chief Inspector may renew any Manager’s Permit for further periods not exceeding 12 months at a time.
60. What do you understand by occupational health survey? What were the recommendations regarding this in latest safety conference? Who is responsible for IME and PME of contractual workers?
Occupational health survey- Occupational health is all about focusing attention on the health and wellbeing of the people in mining industry, especially in terms of biological, chemical, physical, ergonomic and psychosocial terms.
Managing occupational health and workers wellbeing makes a company more efficient, since employees will be more productive and their absence will be less.
Range of occupational health survey, audit and assessment services includes:
Full audit of current systems
Identification of occupational health risks
Risk analysis and control
Consultation to improve and best ways to do so
Expert health and safety training for employees
- Noise mapping should be made mandatory of various workplaces in the mine premises
- Personal noise dosimetry of individual workmen exposed to noise level above 85 dB
- Vibration studies of various mining machineries as per ISO Standards.
- Ergonomical assessment of all latest machines which should include assessment of work process, assessment of working Aids/tools, assessment of working posture.
- Portability tests of drinking water
- Measurement of blood pressure, detailed cardiovascular assessment of employees
- Detailed neurological examinations, blood sugar and diagnosis of diabetes mellitus.
- Employees engaged in driving/HEMM operation jobs should undergo eye refraction test at least once in a year.
- For smaller mines where PME facilities are not existing, medical examinations can be done through other competent agencies
Mining company is responsible for IME and PME of contractual workers.
Stay tuned for Part-4